|Development of Silicon Microstrip and Pixel Detectors for the European XFEL|
The next generation light source, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL.EU), is currently being constructed in the Hamburg region and will be available for user operation in 2017. It will deliver extra short, high intense X-ray pulses with a separation of 220 ns. The unique X-ray beam poses the following challenges to detectors used at the XFEL.EU: A dynamic range of 0, 1, …104 12.4 keV photons, a frame rate of 4.5MHz, and last but not least radiation damage up to 1 GGy for 3 years of operation. Several detectors are under development for the EU.XFEL, including pixel detectors for imaging experiments and microstrip detector for energy dispersive experiments, etc.
AGIPD (Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector) is a hybrid pixel detector for imaging experiments with hard X-rays at the XFEL.EU. The 1-megapixels (1M) system of AGIPD consists of 16 pieces of 500 µm thick silicon sensors to provide high quantum efficiency of > 90% up to 12.4 keV photon energy. Each sensor implemented with radiation-hard design includes 512 x 128 pixels of 200 µm x 200 µm. 8 x 2 AGIPDASICs are bump-bonded to each sensor for reading out charges generated by X-ray photons. The development of AGIPD started since 2007 and the first 1M pixel system will be commissioned by the end of 2016. In this talk, the performance of AGIPD sensor and ASICs will be discussed and some first experiments with AGIPD shown.
Gotthard-II is a 1-D microstrip detector specifically developed for the XFEL.EU. It is a relatively new project starting from 2015. The Gotthard-II detector will be used not only as a spectrometer meeting all requirements mentioned above but also as a beam diagnostic tool with additional logic to generate veto signal for the other 2-D detectors, for example AGIPD and LPD. Gotthard-II makes use of silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of either 50 µm or 25 µm and with 1280 channels in total wire-bonded to ASIC chips with build-in ADCs and memories for a continuous readout of frames and hit information generated by each X-ray pulse. The performance of existing prototypes has been investigated extensively. In this talk, the results regarding to noise, dynamic range and strip-to-strip coupling by means of infrared laser and X-rays will be shown and its influence on the design of Gotthard-II discussed. The development strategies and the architecture of the final ASIC will be presented.
|Zhang JG. Development of Silicon Microstrip and Pixel Detectors for the European XFEL[Z] .2016.|
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