Peking Univ, Sch Phys, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
; Acad Sinica, Inst High Energy Phys, Beijing 100039, Peoples R China
; Acad Sinica, Inst Theoret Phys, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China
; Nankai Univ, Dept Phys, Tianjin 300071, Peoples R China
; Zhejiang Univ, Dept Phys, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China
We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Luscher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume.