Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Phys, State Key Lab Surface Phys, Beijing 100080, Peoples R China
; Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys, Beijing 100039, Peoples R China
Amorphous CN:Ti films deposited by using the reactive magnetron sputtering method were annealed in vacuum under 200 to 600 degrees C. Incorporation of Ti (less than 3 at.%) has brought some new perspectives to the material. Electron-energy-loss spectrum indicates improved conductivity in CN:Ti films as in the insulating CN films. The high-resolution core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show that most carbon atoms form homeopolar bonding in as-deposited CN:Ti film. While the N 1s line always shrinks with increasing annealing temperature, the total full width at half maximum of C 1s line decreases only at annealing temperature over 300 degrees C when the broadening due to heterobonding formation is outdone by the effect of increasing order. An enhanced pi-band feature in the valence-XPS spectra, at high annealing temperatures confirms the graphitisation tendency of this material.