We propose a new and robust method to test the consistency of the cosmic evolution given by a cosmological model. It is realized by comparing the combined quantity r(d)(CMB) = D-V(SN), which is derived from the comoving sound horizon r(d) from cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements and the effective distance D-V derived from low-redshift type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data, with direct and independent r(d)= D-V obtained by baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at median redshifts. We apply this test method for the. cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) and wCDM models, and investigate the consistency of the derived value of r(d)= D-V from Planck 2015 and the SN Ia data sets of Union2.1 and joint light-curve analysis (JLA) (z < 1.5), and the r(d)= D-V directly given by BAO data from six-degree-field galaxy survey (6dFGS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 Main Galaxy Survey (SDSS-DR7 MGS), DR11 of SDSS-III, WiggleZ and Ly alpha forecast surveys from baryon oscillation spectroscopic data (BOSS) DR-11 over 0.1 < z < 2.36. We find that r(d)(CMB) = D-V(SN) for both nonflat Lambda CDM and flat wCDM models with Union2.1 and JLA data are well consistent with the BAO and CMB measurements within 1 sigma C.L. Future surveys will further tighten up the constraints significantly, and provide a stronger test on the consistency.