Here, we present a precision cancer nanomedicine based on Bi2S3 nanorods (NRs) designed specifically for multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT)/X-ray computed tomography (CT)-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). The as-prepared Bi2S3 NRs possess ideal photothermal effect and contrast enhancement in MSOT/CT bimodal imaging. These features make them simultaneously act as satellite and precision targeted weapon for the visual guide to destruction of tumors in vivo, realizing effective tumor destruction and metastasis inhibition after intravenous injection. In addition, toxicity screening confirms that Bi2S3 NRs have well biocompatibility. This triple-modality-nanoparticle approach enables simultaneously precise cancer therapy and therapeutic monitoring.