|Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: A comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials|
|Schofield, RMS; Niedbala, JC; Nesson, MH; Tao, Y; Shokes, JE; Scott, RA; Latimer, MJ; Tao Y(陶冶)
|Source Publication||JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY
|Corresponding Author||Schofield, RMS (reprint author), Univ Oregon, Dept Phys, Eugene, OR 97403 USA.
|Abstract||We find that the spoon-like tips of the chelipeds (large claws) of the crab Pachygrapsus crassipes differ from the rest of the claw in that they are not calcified, but instead contain about 1% bromine-thus they represent a new example of a class of structural biological materials that contain heavy elements such as Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Br bound in an organic matrix. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest that the bromine is bound to phenyl rings, possibly in tyrosine. We measure a broad array of mechanical properties of a heavy-element biological material for the first time (abrasion resistance, coefficient of kinetic friction, energy of fracture, hardness, modulus of elasticity and dynamic mechanical properties), and we make a direct comparison with a mineralized tissue. Our results suggest that the greatest advantage of bromine-rich cuticle over calcified cuticle is resistance to fracture (the energy of fracture is about an order of magnitude greater than for calcified cuticle). The greatest advantage relative to unenriched cuticle, represented by ant mandible cuticle, is a factor of about 1.5 greater hardness and modulus of elasticity. The spoon-like tips gain additional fracture resistance from the orientation of the constituent laminae and from the viscoelasticity of the material. We suggest that fracture resistance is of greater importance in smaller organisms, and we speculate that one function of heavy elements in structural biological materials is to reduce molecular resonant frequencies and thereby increase absorption of energy from impacts. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
Modulus of elasticity
Energy of fracture
Scanning X-ray microscopy
Scanning X-ray microprobe spectroscopy
|Subject Area||Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Biophysics; Cell Biology
|WOS Subject||Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
; Cell Biology
Schofield, RMS,Niedbala, JC,Nesson, MH,et al. Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: A comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials[J]. JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY,2009,166(3):#REF!.
Schofield, RMS.,Niedbala, JC.,Nesson, MH.,Tao, Y.,Shokes, JE.,...&陶冶.(2009).Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: A comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials.JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY,166(3),#REF!.
Schofield, RMS,et al."Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: A comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials".JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY 166.3(2009):#REF!.
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