The unique honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its outstanding electronic properties such as ultrahigh carrier mobility, ballistic transport, and more. However, a crucial obstacle to its use in the electronics industry is its lack of an energy bandgap. A covalent chemistry strategy could overcome this problem, and would have the benefits of being highly controllable and stable in the ambient environment. One possible approach is aryl diazonium functionalization. In this Account, we investigate the micromolecular/lattice structure, electronic structure, and electron-transport properties of nitrophenyl-diazonium-functionalized graphene. We find that nitrophenyl groups mainly adopt random and inhomogeneous configurations on the graphene basal plane, and that their bonding with graphene carbon atoms leads to slight elongation of the graphene lattice spacing. By contrast, hydrogenated graphene has a compressed lattice. Low levels of functionalization suppressed the electric conductivity of the resulting functionalized graphene, while highly functionalized graphene showed the opposite effect. This difference arises from the competition between the charge transfer effect and the scattering enhancement effect Introduced by nitrophenyl groups bonding with graphene carbon atoms. Detailed electron transport measurements revealed that the nitrophenyl diazonium functionalization locally breaks the symmetry of graphene lattice, which leads to an increase in the density of state near the Fermi level, thus increasing the carrier density. On the other hand, the bonded nitrophenyl groups act as scattering centers, lowering the mean free path of the charge carriers and suppressing the carrier mobility. In rare cases, we observed ordered configurations of nitrophenyl groups in load domains on graphene flakes due to fluctuations in the reaction processes. We describe one example of such a superlattice, with a lattice constant nearly twice of that of pristine graphene. We performed comprehensive theoretical calculations to investigate the lattice and the electronic structure of the superlattice structure. Our results reveal that it is a thermodynamically stable, spin-polarized semiconductor with a bandgap of similar to 0.5 eV. Our results demonstrate the possibility of controlling graphene's electronic properties using aryl diazonium functionalization. Asymmetric addition of aryl groups to different sublattices of graphene is a promising approach for producing ferromagnetic, semiconductive graphene, which will have broad applications in the electronic industry.